Northstar двигатель


Northstar engine series - Wikipedia

The Northstar engine is a family of high-performance 90° V engines produced General Motors between 1991 and 2010. Regarded as GM's most technically complex engine, the original double overhead cam, four valve per cyclinder, aluminum block/aluminum head V8 design was developed by Oldsmobile's R&D,[citation needed] but is most associated with Cadillac's Northstar series.

Displacing 4.6 L (281 cu in) in its basic form, the direct family line transitioned to longitudinal and 4.4 L (267 cu in) supercharged versions. Variants were used at Oldsmobile (as the Aurora L47 V8 and "Shortstar" LX5 V6), as well as in several top-end 2000s Pontiacs and Buicks.

The related Northstar System was Cadillac's trademarked name for a package of performance features introduced in mid-1992 that coupled variable valve timing, road sensing suspension, variable power steering, and 4-wheel disc brakes to the Division's high-output and high-torque Northstar engines.

GM ceased production of the 4.6 L Northstar in 2003, and the remaining series in July 2010. The final cars to receive it, the Cadillac DTS, Buick Lucerne, and Cadillac STS, rolled off the line in 2011.[1] It was replaced by the GM LS small-block OHV engine, used in newer Cadillac V8 models like the CTS-V, marking a step back to a simpler, more reliable push rod engine design.

Development and features[edit]

GM initiated what ultimately became the Northstar's design at Oldsmobile R&D[citation needed] some time in 1984 in anticipation of[citation needed] the advanced dual overhead cam V8 engines to be introduced by European and Japanese competitors later in the decade. At that time, Cadillac was using the aluminum HT Overhead Valve (OHV) V8 which GM pushed hastily into production because the CAFE standards for 1982 would preempt using 1981's V8-6-4. At the time it was GM's corporate policy not to pass the gas guzzler tax on to the consumer.

Cadillac was developing new models which they hoped would compete against the best luxury cars from BMW, Mercedes-Benz, and Asian rivals like Lexus, Acura, and Infiniti. GM developed a laundry list of items to be included in the Allanté and updated Eldorado and Seville STS, including sophisticated steering, braking, and suspension technologies, and an engine exclusive to "Cadillac" the Division's dealers were clamoring for. This group of features became known as the Northstar System. Central to it was a high-tech V8 with the performance and sophistication to compete with an ever expanding list of imported challengers.

Capable of producing 300 hp (224 kW) out of its 4,565 cubic centimetres (278.6 cu in) displacement, the Northstar featured a cast aluminum 90° V8 block with 102 mm (4 in) bore spacing split into unitary upper and lower halves. The lower crankcase assembly supported the crankshaft without conventional main bearing caps. An oil manifold plate with an integrated silicone gasket forms the oil gallery under this. A typical oil change used 7.5–8 quarts of oil.

GM specified cast-iron cylinder liners and the cast aluminum pistons included valve clearance. Northstar is an interference engine: the valves will strike the pistons if they lose timing. It has bronze piston pin bushings and free-floating piston pins.

GM used cast aluminum cylinder heads featuring 4 valves per cylinder. The heads used dual overhead cams driven through the "maintenance-free" cam-drive chain case. The cams act directly on hydraulic lifters on the ends of the valves and are fed with a lubrication passage drilled through the cylinder head lengthwise. The intake valves are inclined at 25°, while the exhaust valves are canted to 7° with center-mounted platinum-tipped spark plugs. The cam covers are magnesium for light weight and sound damping.

Sequential fuel injection was delivered via eight thermoplastic tubes. Ignition was distributorless, with a waste spark setup. The PCM (powertrain control module) controled spark and fuel injection timing as well as the shift points for the new four-speed, transverse 4T80-E transmission. All engines of this family share the same Northstar bellhousing pattern.

One notable feature advertised at the time was the "limp home" fail-safe mode which allowed the engine to continue running for a limited time without any coolant. Supplying fuel to only one cylinder bank in turn, the engine would "air cool" the inactive bank. This technique, combined with its all-aluminum construction and large oil capacity, allows the engine to maintain safe temperatures, allowing a Northstar-equipped car to be driven with no coolant for about 100 mi (161 km) without damage.

Another unusual feature of some heavily electronic-laden Northstar-equipped cars such as the Seville, DeVille, and Eldorado is a liquid-cooled alternator. Intended to prolong alternator life, GM reverted to a traditional air-cooled setup for 2001 to eliminate potential leak points and extraneous tubing.

Later developments included direct coil-on-plug ignition, roller lifters, and variable valve timing, which can vary intake by up to 40° and the exhaust by up to 50°. VVT was devised for the longitudinal Lh3 version, and has not, to date, been used on the transverse front wheel drive engines due to packaging considerations.[clarification needed]

Northstar series[edit]

The engine was introduced in mid-1992 in the 1993 Cadillac Allanté, eventually ended up in most Cadillac automobiles, but is now phased out of all Cadillac models. The original Northstar Allanté also introduced the Northstar System which included traction control, adaptive suspension, and antilock brakes. Early Northstar required premium grade gasoline to run safely.

The Northstar was sold exclusively by that name by Cadillac for over a decade before being introduced in the 2004-2005 Pontiac Bonneville and 2006 Buick Lucerne. However, the 4.0L L47 V8 Northstar variant was used in the Oldsmobile Aurora and the 3.5L LX5 V6 in the Oldsmobile Intrigue. The engine received a forged steel crankshaft in October 2003. Cadillac had planned to introduce a V12 Northstar this decade, likely for use in the Escalade, but economics and new CAFE standards killed the idea.

Most Northstar engines produce 275 hp (205 kW) to 320 hp (239 kW). The engines were revised for 2000 with coil-on-plug ignition and roller follower valvegear for improved fuel economy and reduced emissions. Though power output did not change, this update made premium fuel merely recommended, rather than required.

All but the supercharged Northstars displaced 4.6 L (279 cu in) with a 93 mm (3.7 in) bore and 84 mm (3.3 in) stroke. For better head gasket sealing between cylinders, the supercharged version is de-bored to 91 mm (3.6 in) for a total displacement of 4.4 L (266 cu in). The block is believed to be capable of expansion up to 5.4 L, though no such engine has been produced.

The Northstar was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 1995, 1996, and 1997.

Northstar System[edit]

The Northstar System was Cadillac's trademarked name for a package of automobile performance features introduced in mid-1992 on the 1993 Cadillac Allanté and later on the 1993 Seville and Eldorado.

The Northstar System included the following components:

    • L37 high-output 300 hp (224 kW) and 295 lb·ft (400 N·m)
    • LD8 high-torque 275 hp (205 kW) and 300 lb·ft (407 N·m)
  • Variable Valve Timing (VVT), a continuously variable system throughout the rpm range, increasing fuel economy.
GM engines use the double overhead cam, varying both intake and exhaust for better performance.
  • GM 4T80-E 4-speed automatic transmission
  • Road Sensing Suspension, which monitored damping rates of the shock absorbers every 15 milliseconds, selecting between two settings.
RSS was available in both standard and CV-RSS (continuously-variable) systems.

Later versions of the Northstar engine included the 4.6L 320 hp (239 kW) and 315 lb⋅ft (427 N⋅m) Lh3 which began in 2004, and supercharged 4.4L 469 hp (350 kW) LC3 created for the STS-V which are detailed below.

L37[edit]

The 4.6 L (280 cu in) L37 (VIN "9") was the original Northstar. It is tuned for responsiveness and power, while the later LD8 is designed for more sedate use. The L37 code had been used on all high-output transverse Northstars, even as the exact engine specifications evolved. The compression ratio for the L37 is 10.3:1 for engines built prior to 2000, and 10:1 afterwards.

The original L37 was specified at 290 hp (216 kW), but 1993 production examples were rated at 295 hp (220 kW). The engine topped out at 300 hp (224 kW) from 1996 through 2004 on the STS, DTS and ETC models, making these some of the most powerful domestic front wheel drive cars ever built.[citation needed] For 2005 the high output Northstar became Northstar NHP, and was downrated to 290 horsepower (220 kW) under the new SAE certified horsepower rating system. In 2006, the updated DTS "Performance Package" model got a slight bump to 292 hp (218 kW). Vehicles using the L37 include:

Year Model Power Torque
1993 Cadillac Allanté 295 hp (220 kW) @ 5600 rpm 290 lb⋅ft (393 N⋅m) @ 4400 rpm
1993–1994 Cadillac Eldorado ETC 295 hp (220 kW) @ 5600 rpm 290 lb⋅ft (393 N⋅m) @ 4400 rpm
1995–2002 Cadillac Eldorado ETC 300 hp (224 kW) @ 6000 rpm 295 lb⋅ft (400 N⋅m) @ 4400 rpm
1993-1994 Cadillac Seville STS 295 hp (220 kW) @ 5600 rpm 290 lb⋅ft (393 N⋅m) @ 4400 rpm
1995–2004 Cadillac Seville STS 300 hp (224 kW) @ 6000 rpm 295 lb⋅ft (400 N⋅m) @ 4400 rpm
1996–2004 Cadillac DeVille Concours/DTS 300 hp (224 kW) @ 6000 rpm 295 lb⋅ft (400 N⋅m) @ 4400 rpm
2005 Cadillac DeVille DTS 290 hp (216 kW) @ 5600 rpm 285 lb⋅ft (386 N⋅m) @ 4400 rpm
2006–2011 Cadillac DTS Performance 292 hp (218 kW) @ 6300 rpm 288 lb⋅ft (390 N⋅m) @ 4500 rpm
2008–2011 Buick Lucerne Super 292 hp (218 kW) @ 6300 rpm 288 lb⋅ft (390 N⋅m) @ 4500 rpm

LD8[edit]

The 4.6 L (280 cu in) LD8 (VIN "Y") is a transverse V8 for front-wheel drive cars. Introduced in 1994, it is designed to provide more torque than the high-revving L37. The LD8 code had been used on all torque-tuned transverse Northstars, even as the exact engine specifications evolved. Compression ratio is 10.3:1 for engines built prior to model year 2000, and 10:1 for those built afterwards.

The 1998 revision is quieter than previous Northstar engines, due to hydraulic engine mounts, and performs better due to a tuned intake system.

Most LD8 Northstars are rated at 275 hp (205 kW) and 300 lb⋅ft (407 N⋅m).

Year Model Power Torque
1994 Cadillac Eldorado 270 hp (201 kW) 300 lb⋅ft (407 N⋅m)
1995–2001 Cadillac Eldorado ESC 275 hp (205 kW) @ 5750 rpm 300 lb⋅ft (407 N⋅m)
2002 Cadillac Eldorado ESC 275 hp (205 kW) @ 5600 rpm 300 lb⋅ft (407 N⋅m) @ 4000 rpm
1993-1994 Cadillac Seville SLS 270 hp (201 kW) 300 lb⋅ft (407 N⋅m)
1995–2004 Cadillac Seville SLS 275 hp (205 kW) @ 5600 rpm 300 lb⋅ft (407 N⋅m) @ 4000 rpm
1994 Cadillac DeVille Concours 270 hp (201 kW) 300 lb⋅ft (407 N⋅m)
1995 Cadillac DeVille Concours 275 hp (205 kW) @ 5750 rpm 300 lb⋅ft (407 N⋅m)
1996–2001 Cadillac DeVille 275 hp (205 kW) @ 5750 rpm 300 lb⋅ft (407 N⋅m) @ 4000 rpm
2002–2005 Cadillac DeVille 275 hp (205 kW) @ 5600 rpm 300 lb⋅ft (407 N⋅m) @ 4000 rpm
2006–2011 Cadillac DTS 275 hp (205 kW) @ 6000 rpm 295 lb⋅ft (400 N⋅m) @ 4400 rpm
2004–2005 Pontiac Bonneville GXP 275 hp (205 kW) @ 5600 rpm 300 lb⋅ft (407 N⋅m) @ 4000 rpm
2006–2007 Buick Lucerne CXL (optional)/CXS 275 hp (205 kW) @ 6000 rpm 295 lb⋅ft (400 N⋅m) @ 4400 rpm

Lh3[edit]

The 4.6 L (279 cu in) Northstar was designed originally for transverse front-wheel drive applications. It was modified substantially in 2004 for longitudinal rear- and all-wheel drive use in the STS, SRX, and XLR, as well as receiving continuously variable valve timing on both intake and exhaust sides. The RWD (Lh3) Northstar produces 320 hp (239 kW) and 315 lb⋅ft (427 N⋅m). An increased compression ratio of 10.5:1 enables most of the increase in power from the L37 and LD8 Northstars.

Year Model Power Torque
2004–2009 Cadillac SRX 320 hp (239 kW) @ 6400 rpm 315 lb⋅ft (427 N⋅m) @ 4400 rpm
2004–2009 Cadillac XLR 320 hp (239 kW) @ 6400 rpm 310 lb⋅ft (420 N⋅m) @ 4400 rpm
2005–2010 Cadillac STS 320 hp (239 kW) @ 6400 rpm 315 lb⋅ft (427 N⋅m) @ 4400 rpm

LC3[edit]

A 4.4 L (267 cu in) supercharged Northstar was used in the 2006 Cadillac STS-V and Cadillac XLR-V. The bore was reduced for increased strength and improved head gasket sealing. Variable valve timing is used on both the intake and exhaust sides. The STS-V engine produces 469 hp (350 kW) at 6400 rpm and 439 lb⋅ft (595 N⋅m) at 3900 rpm with 9:1 compression and the XLR-V engine produces 443 hp (330 kW) at 6400 rpm and 414 lb⋅ft (561 N⋅m) at 3900 rpm.

Year Model Power Torque
2006–2009 Cadillac STS-V 469 hp (350 kW) @ 6400 rpm 439 lb⋅ft (595 N⋅m) @ 3900 rpm
2006–2009 Cadillac XLR-V 443 hp (330 kW) @ 6400 rpm 414 lb⋅ft (561 N⋅m) @ 3900 rpm

L47[edit]

The L47 Aurora engine was a special V8 designed for the Oldsmobile Aurora, based on the Northstar engine, used during the 1995-1999 and 2001-2003 model years. It is a DOHC 4.0 L (240 cu in) V8 which produced 250 horsepower (186 kW) and 260 lb·ft (353 N·m) of torque. The bore was 87 mm (3.4 in) and the stroke was 84 mm (3.3 in). The L47 had a 10.3:1 compression ratio and used premium fuel.

An early version or prototype of this engine was used in the 2nd generation Oldsmobile Aerotech.

Although most of the Northstar's features, including the coolant loss system, remained intact, the decreased bore increased weight unacceptably. To reduce it, Oldsmobile used a one-piece glass-filled thermoplastic intake manifold and simplified AC Rochester sequential fuel injection. A new die-cast structural aluminum oil pan incorporated baffling to reduce oil starvation in hard driving. A starter interlock prevented the starter from engaging if the quiet L47 was already running.

A highly modified 650 hp (485 kW) version of this engine was used by General Motors racing division initially for Indy Racing League competition starting in 1997, then was later used in the Cadillac Northstar LMP program in 2000. Both engines retained the 4.0 L displacement, but the Northstar LMP version was twin-turbocharged.[2]

The Aurora was also used in the Shelby Series 1 car.

The Aurora engine was introduced in 1994 for the 1995 model year, and General Motors has not used this engine since the demise of the marque in 2004.

Year Model Power Torque
1995–2003 Oldsmobile Aurora 250 hp (186 kW) @ 5600 rpm 260 lb⋅ft (353 N⋅m) @ 4400 rpm
1999–2005 Shelby Series 1 320 hp (324 PS) @ 6500 rpm 290 lb⋅ft (390 N⋅m) @ 5000 rpm

LX5 (Shortstar)[edit]

The LX5 is a DOHC V6 from Oldsmobile, introduced in 1999 with the Intrigue. It was produced by the Premium engine group at GM and was thus called the Premium V6, or PV6, while it was being developed. It is based on the L47 Aurora V8, which is itself based on the Northstar engine, so engineers called it the Short North, though Oldsmobile fans have taken to calling it the Shortstar.

It is not a simple cut-down V8. Although it has a 90° vee-angle like the Northstar and Aurora, the engine block was engineered from scratch, so bore centers are different. It has chain-driven dual overhead cams and four valves per cylinder, but is an even-firing design with a split-pin crankshaft similar to the Buick 3800 engine. The LX5 displaced 3.5 L (212 cu in) and produced 215 hp (160 kW) @ 5,600 rpm and 234 lb·ft (312 N·m) @ 4,400 rpm. Bore is 89.5 mm (3.52 in) and stroke is 92 mm (3.6 in). It was also one of GM's first engines to use coil-on-plug ignition. Compression ratio is 9.3:1.

The cost of building this engine was high, and it was not used in many vehicles. It was said at the time that a family of premium V6s would follow, with displacements ranging from 3.3 L to 3.7 L, but only the LX5 was ever produced before GM axed the Shortstar in favor of their current flagship V6, the High Feature, in 2004.

The LX5 was entirely different from any other V6 in the GM inventory - the only other DOHC V6]engines ever offered by GM included the Chevrolet Twin Dual Cam produced from 1991-1997 (which was made by heavily modifying the traditional Chevy 60-degree OHV block for the dual overhead cams rather than building a DOHC engine from the ground up), and the Cadillac/Holden HFV6 available from 2004 to the present day. These three designs are completely unrelated and oddly enough leave two gaps in 1998 and 2003 where no DOHC V6 was available from GM. (Except for the 54 degree Opel V6 used most notably in the first generation Cadillac CTS at launch as well as the Saturn L Series.) This contrasts starkly with competitors practices of evolving engineering over multiple, continuously improving designs.

As with the Aurora V8, production stopped with the demise of Oldsmobile.

Year Model Power Torque
1999–2002 Oldsmobile Intrigue 215 hp (160 kW) @ 5600 rpm 234 lb⋅ft (317 N⋅m) @ 4400 rpm
2001–2002 Oldsmobile Aurora 215 hp (160 kW) @ 5600 rpm 234 lb⋅ft (317 N⋅m) @ 4400 rpm

The 3.5L LX5 was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Frank Markus. "1993 Technical Highlights". Car and Driver (October 1992): 59–60. 
  • "Technical Highlights". Car and Driver (October 1993): 115. 
  • Joel D. Pietrangelo. "Northstar is heart of Allante re-do for '93 - V-8 engine, General Motors' Cadillac Motor Car Div.'s new model roadster". Ward's Auto World (February 1992). 

External links[edit]

en.wikipedia.org

Northstar engine | Cadillac Wiki

Northstar V8

The Northstar V8 engine family is General Motor's top-of-the-line luxury power plant. Introduced in 1993 in the Cadillac Allante, Eldorado and Seville STS, the 4.6L 32-valve dual overhead cam all-aluminum V8 engine was a quantum leap forward for U.S. automakers. Initially rated at 295 horsepower, the Northstar V8 has been ranked as one of the "10 Best Engines in North America" by Ward's Auto World. It also beat out both Mercedes-Benz and BMW in horsepower per liter of displacement, fuel economy and required maintenance.Like most other engines, the Northstar V8 has evolved over the years. In 1994, the first Northstar V8 (L37) was joined by a second version (LD8) with a different cam profile that lowered peak horsepower slightly to 270 hp but increased torque output in the lower rpm range for improved throttle response and quick acceleration.In 1994, a downsized and somewhat less powerful version of the original Northstar V8 was introduced in the Oldsmobile Aurora. The L47 4.0L V8 was essentially the same engine as the larger 4.6L V8 but with a smaller bore size (87mm vs. 93mm). The L47 4.0L V8 was rated at 250 horsepower.In 1995, the power rating of the L37 4.6L V8 (VIN 9) was bumped up slightly to 300 hp, and the LD8 4.6L V8 (VIN Y) was upped to 275 hp.The two basic versions of the 4.6L V8 (275 and 300 hp) are still being used in model year 2003, and there are no plans to replace this engine in the immediate future. So it looks like the Northstar V8 will continue to enjoy a long production run.GM recently unveiled its Northstar XV12 concept engine that is physically about the same size as the existing V8 but is capable of producing up to 750 horsepower! The engine uses cylinder deactivation technology to keep fuel economy manageable, but there are no productions plans yet for this exotic power plant.Engine FeaturesThe Northstar V8 has a die-cast aluminum block with a bottom end girdle that splits along the midline of the crankshaft bearings. This takes the place of the main bearing caps. In model year 2000, GM began using a new high pressure "squeeze" casting process for the lower crankcase to reduce porosity in the aluminum, which may allow oil to seep through and leak (this has been a problem on some engines).[1]

The cylinders have cast-in-place iron cylinder liners that are not replaceable. Compression up to model year 2000 was a relatively high 10.3:1. It was lowered to 10:1 in 2000. Each head has two camshafts (one intake, one exhaust) and four valves per cylinder (33mm intakes and 29mm exhausts). Direct-acting hydraulic lash adjusters are positioned over each valve. The overhead cams are all chain-driven, and use an intermediate chain sprocket under the front cover to connect to the crankshaft. Three separate hydraulic tensioners are used to keep the cam chains tight.The Northstar V8 is an interference engine, which means if a chain fails or is disconnected when the engine is cranked over, the valves will hit the pistons. That's something you don't want to happen with an expensive engine like this!The intake manifold is Nylon 66 thermoplastic, which helps cool intake air by conducting less heat from the engine. Fuel delivery is by sequential fuel injection with separate injectors mounted under the engine's top cover. Under the top cover you'll also find the MAP sensor, intake air temperature sensor and fuel pressure regulator.If the fuel pump relay fails on a Northstar V8, the engine should still run because the fuel pump also can be energized through the oil pressure sending unit.A four-coil distributorless ignition with a waste spark set up provides spark to the plugs. Two crankshaft position sensors are used plus a camshaft position sensor to provide timing inputs. Both crank sensors are mounted in the block and the cam sensor is located on the rear head in front of the exhaust cam. There's also a knock sensor on the rear head between cylinders 1 and 3 to retard timing if detonation becomes a problem under load.The ignition system has two modes of operation: "module mode" and "ignition control mode." In ignition control mode, the PCM controls ignition timing using sensor inputs. If there's a problem in the PCM or with its sensor inputs, the module mode takes over and runs the engine with a fixed 10 degrees of advance. The engine continues to run (essentially a limp-in mode) but with reduced performance.

In model year 2000, the DIS ignition system was changed to a coil-on-plug design, which eliminates the spark plug wires and waste spark. Each head has its own ignition module that fits in the middle of the valve cover.Another feature of the Northstar engines is a "limp home" mode that allows the engine to continue running if all the coolant is lost. If the PCM senses an overheating condition, it temporarily disables up to half of the cylinders. This pumps enough air though the engine to keep temperatures from getting hot enough to cause any damage. Even so, GM says the vehicle should not be driven more than 50 miles in the limp-home mode.

Defects/RecallsEdit

[2]
  1. mance engine, in many ways it behaved like a delicate flower. It was an engine much like the high-performance Mercedes-Benz S-Class and Italian-made roadster motors. It could be temperamental with special needs. The Northstar featured a die-cast aluminum block. The bottom end girdle bisected the bottom of the engine along the center of the crankshaft bearings. There were no main bearing caps found on other engines. However, the engine was prone to oil leaks because aluminum was porous. GM in 2000 developed a new process that "squeezed" the lower crankcase casting to reduce leaks.
  1. In the 1990s, the Northstar V-8 four primary problems: head gasket failure, oil leaks, high oil usage and oil burning. Cadillac enthusiasts generally dismissed high oil use as a problem, noting that it's not uncommon for high-performance engines to use a large amount of oil. GM noted that one quart of oil per 1,000 miles was not unusual since 32-valve tubes must be adequately lubricated. What's not normal was the buildup of carbon in the rings that also led to high oil use. A GM-made cleaning kit usually solved the problem.
  1. Common among the 1996 to 1999 Northstar V-8s were oil leaks originating at the rear main crank seal. Part of the problem was due to the aluminum block but also the seating of the oil seal in the block. GM solved the problem by developing a rear main oil seal that pressed into the block. It could only be removed and replaced by a special GM service tool.
  1. Head gasket problems also plagued the Northstar. Burning oil and the resulting buildup of debris in the engine caused it to overheat and blow a gasket. In other instances, the heads may have been serviced or replaced and then re-installed with a new head gasket using the original head bolts. The threads of the original head bolts were weakened after removal and no longer secured the head and gasket properly. New head bolts were required. Replacing the head bolts out of sequence and at the wrong torque values could also lead to a blown head gasket.

Read more: Cadillac Northstar Engine Problems | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/about_6637955_cadillac-northstar-engine-problems.html#ixzz0s7WXnb94

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cadillac.wikia.com

Northstar engine series

The Northstar engine series of automobile engines is General Motors' most technically complex 90° V engine architecture. The family is most associated with Cadillac's Northstar V8, but the family has also seen use at Oldsmobile (as the Aurora L47 V8 and "Shortstar" LX5). The Oldsmobile variants are no longer in production, but the Northstar family did expand with longitudinal and 4.4 L supercharged versions. The Northstar name was used outside Cadillac as well, with Pontiac and Buick versions carrying that moniker.

GM ceased production of the Northstar engine in July 2010. The eliminination of the engine could spell the end of the Cadillac DTS and limit the Buick Lucerne and Cadillac STS to V6 engines only beyond the 2011 model year.[1] Newer Cadillac V8 models like the CTS-V use the Chevrolet LS OHV engine, marking a return to simpler, more robust engine design.

Development and features

The Northstar's design was initiated as a response to the advanced dual overhead cam V8 engines introduced by European and Japanese competitors of Cadillac in the late 1980s. At that time, Cadillac was using the aluminum HT Overhead Valve (OHV) V8 which had been pushed hastily into production after the failure of the V8-6-4 of 1981.

Cadillac was developing new models like the Allanté and updated Eldorado and Seville STS which they hoped would compete against the best from BMW, Mercedes-Benz, and new to the luxury car market Lexus, and Infiniti. They developed a laundry list of items that must be included in these new models, including sophisticated steering, braking, and suspension technologies, which became known as the Northstar System. One key element was a high-tech V8 engine with all of the features and performance of the competitors' offerings. Archrival Ford Motor Company was developing a similar engine at that time as well, and Ford's Modular engine would precede the Northstar into production with its introduction on the 1991 Lincoln Town Car. Both continue in production at 4.6 L of displacement.

Capable of producing 300 hp (224 kW) out of its 4565 cc displacement, the Northstar featured a cast aluminum 90° V8 block with 102 mm (4 in) bore spacing split into unitary upper and lower halves. The lower crankcase assembly supported the crankshaft without conventional main bearing caps. An oil manifold plate with an integrated silicone gasket forms the oil gallery under this. A typical oil change used 7.5–8 quarts of oil.

Cast-iron cylinder liners were specified and the cast aluminum pistons included valve clearance. Northstar is a interference engine, with bronze pin bushings and free-floating piston pins used.

Cast aluminum cylinder heads were used featuring 4 valves per cylinder. The heads used dual overhead cams which are driven through the "maintenance-free" cam-drive chain case. The cams act directly on hydraulic lifters on the ends of the valves and are fed with a lubrication passage drilled through the cylinder head lengthwise. The intake valves are inclined at 25°, while the exhaust valves are canted to 7° with center-mounted platinum-tipped spark plugs. The cam covers are magnesium for light weight.

Eight thermoplastic tubes were used in the induction system, leading to sequential fuel injection. The engine used a distributorless ignition system with a waste spark setup. The PCM controls spark and fuel injection timing as well as the shift points for the new 4T80-E transmission.

One notable feature, advertised at the time, was the "limp home" fail-safe mode which allowed the engine to continue running for a limited time without any coolant. Supplying fuel to only one cylinder bank in turn, the engine would "air cool" the inactive bank. This technique, combined with its all-aluminum construction and large oil capacity, allows the engine to maintain safe temperatures, allowing a Northstar-equipped car to be driven with no coolant for about 100 mi (161 km) without damage.

Another unusual feature of some Northstar-equipped cars is a liquid-cooled alternator used on Cadillac's Seville, DeVille, and Eldorado. The liquid-cooling helped prolong the life of the alternator in these electronic-laden models, though GM reverted to a traditional air-cooled setup for 2001 to eliminate potential leak points and extraneous tubing.

All engines of this family share the same Northstar bellhousing pattern.

Later developments included direct coil-on-plug ignition, and variable valve timing, which can vary intake by up to 40° and the exhaust by up to 50°. VVT was devised for the longitudinal Lh3 version, and has not, to date, been used on the transverse front wheel drive engines due to packaging considerations.

Northstar series

The engine was introduced in mid-1992 in the 1993 Cadillac Allanté, eventually ended up in most Cadillac automobiles, but is now nearly phased out of most Cadillac models. The original Northstar Allanté also introduced the Northstar System which included traction control, adaptive suspension, and antilock brakes. Early Northstar required premium grade gasoline to run safely.

The Northstar was sold exclusively by Cadillac for over a decade before being introduced in the 2004-2005 Pontiac Bonneville and 2006 Buick Lucerne. However, the 4.0L L47 V8 variant was used in the Oldsmobile Aurora and the 3.5L LX5 V6 in the Oldsmobile Intrigue. The engine received a forged steel crankshaft in October 2003. Cadillac had planned to introduce a V12 Northstar this decade, likely for use in the Escalade, but economics and new CAFE standards had killed the idea.

Most Northstar engines produce 275 hp (205 kW) to 315 hp (235 kW). The engines were revised for 2000 with coil-on-plug ignition and roller follower valvegear for improved fuel economy and reduced emissions. Though power output did not change, this update eliminated the need for premium fuel.

All but the supercharged Northstar displace 4.6 L (279 cu in) with a 93 mm (3.7 in) bore and 84 mm (3.3 in) stroke. For better head gasket sealing between cylinders, the supercharged version is de-bored to 91 mm (3.6 in) for a total displacement of 4.4 L (266 cu in). The block is said[who?] to be capable of expansion up to 5.4 L, though no such engine has been produced.

The Northstar was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 1995, 1996, and 1997.

The Northstar System was Cadillac's trademarked name for a package of automobile performance features. Introduced in mid 1992 on the 1993 Cadillac Allanté and later on that year's Seville and Eldorado, the Northstar name continues in use to this day, although only in the Cadillac DTS, since it was announced that the final production year of the STS will use the 3.6L V6 engine only.

The Northstar System included the following components:

    • L37 high-output 300 hp (224 kW) and 295 ft·lbf (400 N·m)
    • LD8 high-torque 275 hp (205 kW) and 300 ft·lbf (407 N·m)
  • GM 4T80-E 4-speed automatic transmission
  • Road Sensing Suspension
RSS was available in both standard and CV-RSS (continuously-variable) systems. It monitored damping rates of the shock absorbers every 15 milliseconds, selecting between two settings. Magnasteer combines conventional hydraulic power steering and magnetized "doughnuts" mounted around the output shaft, which stiffen the steering as vehicle speed increases.

The later versions of the Northstar engine included the 4.6L 320 hp (239 kW) and 315 lb·ft (427 N·m) Lh3 which began in 2004, and supercharged 4.4L 469 hp (350 kW) LC3 created for the STS-V which are detailed below.

General Motors employed a continuously variable system for the Cadillac Northstar System, VVT (Variable Valve Timing). The Northstar VVT provides a continuously variable system throughout the RPM range, increasing fuel economy. GM engines use the double overhead cam, varying both intake and exhaust for better performance.

L37

The L37 (VIN "9") was the original North star. It is tuned for responsiveness and power, while the later LD8 is designed for more sedate use. The L37 code had been used on all high-output transverse Northstars, even as the exact engine specifications evolved. Its displacement is 4600cc. The compression ratio for the L37 is 10.3:1 for engines built prior to 2000, and 10:1 for those built afterwards. The original L37 was specified at 290 hp (216 kW), but 1993 production examples were rated at 295 hp (220 kW). The engine topped out at 300 hp (224 kW) from 1996 through 2004 on the STS, DTS and ETC models, making these some of the most powerful domestic front wheel drive cars ever built. For 2005 the high output Northstar became Northstar NHP, and was downrated to 290 horsepower (220 kW) under the new SAE certified horsepower rating system. In 2006, the updated DTS "Performance Package" model got a slight bump to 292 hp (218 kW). Vehicles using the L37 include:

Year Model Power Torque
1993 Cadillac Allanté 295 hp (220 kW) @ 5600 rpm 290 lb·ft (393 N·m) @ 4400 rpm
1993–1994 Cadillac Eldorado ETC 295 hp (220 kW) @ 5600 rpm 290 lb·ft (393 N·m) @ 4400 rpm
1995–2002 Cadillac Eldorado ETC 300 hp (224 kW) @ 6000 rpm 295 lb·ft (400 N·m) @ 4400 rpm
1993 Cadillac Seville STS 295 hp (220 kW) @ 5600 rpm 290 lb·ft (393 N·m) @ 4400 rpm
1994–2004 Cadillac Seville STS 300 hp (224 kW) @ 6000 rpm 295 lb·ft (400 N·m) @ 4400 rpm
1996–2004 Cadillac DeVille Concours/DTS 300 hp (224 kW) @ 6000 rpm 295 lb·ft (400 N·m) @ 4400 rpm
2005 Cadillac DeVille DTS 290 hp (216 kW) @ 5600 rpm 285 lb·ft (386 N·m) @ 4400 rpm
2006–present Cadillac DTS Performance 292 hp (218 kW) @ 6300 rpm 288 lb·ft (390 N·m) @ 4500 rpm
2008–present Buick Lucerne Super 292 hp (218 kW) @ 6300 rpm 288 lb·ft (390 N·m) @ 4500 rpm

LD8

The LD8 (VIN "Y") is a transverse V8 for front-wheel drive cars. Introduced in 1994, it is designed to provide more torque than the high-revving L37. The LD8 code had been used on all torque-tuned transverse Northstars, even as the exact engine specifications evolved. Compression ratio is 10:1.

The 1998 revision is quieter than previous Northstar engines, due to hydraulic engine mounts, and performs better due to a tuned intake system.

Most LD8 Northstars are rated at 275 hp (205 kW) and 300 lb·ft (407 N·m).

Year Model Power Torque
1994 Cadillac Eldorado 270 hp (201 kW) 300 lb·ft (407 N·m)
1995–2001 Cadillac Eldorado 275 hp (205 kW) @ 5750 rpm 300 lb·ft (407 N·m)
2002 Cadillac Eldorado 275 hp (205 kW) @ 5600 rpm 300 lb·ft (407 N·m) @ 4000 rpm
1994 Cadillac Seville SLS 270 hp (201 kW) 300 lb·ft (407 N·m)
1995–2001 Cadillac Seville SLS 275 hp (205 kW) 300 lb·ft (407 N·m)
2002–2004 Cadillac Seville SLS 275 hp (205 kW) 300 lb·ft (407 N·m)
1994 Cadillac DeVille Concours 270 hp (201 kW) 300 lb·ft (407 N·m)
1995 Cadillac DeVille Concours 275 hp (205 kW) @ 5750 rpm 300 lb·ft (407 N·m)
1996–2001 Cadillac DeVille 275 hp (205 kW) @ 5750 rpm 300 lb·ft (407 N·m) @ 4000 rpm
2002–2005 Cadillac DeVille 275 hp (205 kW) @ 5600 rpm 300 lb·ft (407 N·m) @ 4000 rpm
2006–present Cadillac DTS 275 hp (205 kW) @ 6000 rpm 295 lb·ft (400 N·m) @ 4400 rpm
2004–2005 Pontiac Bonneville GXP 275 hp (205 kW) @ 5600 rpm 300 lb·ft (407 N·m) @ 4000 rpm
2006–2007 Buick Lucerne CXS 275 hp (205 kW) @ 6000 rpm 295 lb·ft (400 N·m) @ 4400 rpm

Lh3

The Northstar was designed originally for transverse front-wheel drive applications. It was modified substantially in 2004 for longitudinal rear- and all-wheel drive use in the STS, SRX, and XLR, as well as receiving continuously variable valve timing on both intake and exhaust sides. The RWD (Lh3) Northstar produces 320 hp (239 kW) and 315 lb·ft (427 N·m). An increased compression ratio of 10.5:1 enables most of the increase in power from the L37 and LD8 Northstars.

Year Model Power Torque
2004–2009 Cadillac SRX 320 hp (239 kW) @ 6400 rpm 315 lb·ft (427 N·m) @ 4400 rpm
2004–2009 Cadillac XLR 320 hp (239 kW) @ 6400 rpm 310 lb·ft (420 N·m) @ 4400 rpm
2005–2010 Cadillac STS 320 hp (239 kW) @ 6400 rpm 315 lb·ft (427 N·m) @ 4400 rpm

Supercharged LC3

A 4.4 L (266 cu in) supercharged Northstar was used in the 2006 Cadillac STS-V and Cadillac XLR-V. The bore was reduced for increased strength and improved head gasket sealing. Variable valve timing is used on both the intake and exhaust sides. The STS-V engine produces 469 hp (350 kW) at 6400 rpm and 439 lb·ft (595 N·m) at 3900 rpm with 9:1 compression and the XLR-V engine produces 443 hp (330 kW) at 6400 rpm and 414 lb·ft (561 N·m) at 3900 rpm.

Year Model Power Torque
2006–2009 Cadillac STS-V 469 hp (350 kW) @ 6400 rpm 439 lb·ft (595 N·m) @ 3900 rpm
2006–2009 Cadillac XLR-V 443 hp (330 kW) @ 6400 rpm 414 lb·ft (561 N·m) @ 3900 rpm

L47

The L47 Aurora engine was a special V8 designed for the Oldsmobile Aurora, based on the Northstar engine. It is a DOHC 3,995 cc (3.995 L; 243.8 cu in) V8 which produced 250 horsepower (186 kW) and 260 ft·lb (353 N·m) of torque. The bore was 87 mm (3.4 in) and the stroke was 84 mm (3.3 in). The L47 had a 10.3:1 compression ratio and used premium fuel.

An early version or prototype of this engine was used in the 2nd generation Oldsmobile Aerotech.

Although most of the Northstar's features, including the coolant loss system, remained intact, the decreased bore increased weight unacceptably. To reduce it, Oldsmobile used a one-piece glass-filled thermoplastic intake manifold and simplified AC Rochester sequential fuel injection. A new die-cast structural aluminum oil pan incorporated baffling to reduce oil starvation in hard driving. A starter interlock prevented the starter from engaging if the quiet L47 was already running.

A highly modified 650 hp (485 kW) version of this engine was used by General Motors racing division initially for Indy Racing League competition starting in 1995, then was later used in the Cadillac Northstar LMP program in 2000. Both engines retained the 4.0 L capacity, but the Northstar LMP version was twin-turbocharged.[2]

The Aurora was also used in the Shelby Series 1 car.

The Aurora engine was introduced in 1994 for the 1995 model year, and General Motors has not used this engine since the demise of the marque in 2004.

LX5 (Shortstar)

The LX5 V6 is a DOHC engine from Oldsmobile, introduced in 1999 with the Oldsmobile Intrigue. It was produced by the Premium engine group at GM and was thus called the Premium V6, or PV6, while it was being developed. It is based on the L47 Aurora V8, which is itself based on the Northstar engine, so engineers called it the Short North, though Oldsmobile fans have taken to calling it the Shortstar.

It is not a simple cut-down V8. Although it has a 90° vee-angle like the Northstar and Aurora, the engine block was engineered from scratch, so bore centers are different. It has chain-driven dual overhead cams and four valves per cylinder, but is an even-firing design with a split-pin crankshaft similar to the Buick 3800 engine. The LX5 displaced 3,473 cc (3.473 L; 211.9 cu in) and produced 215 hp (160 kW) @ 5,600 rpm and 234 ft·lb (312 N·m) @ 4,400 rpm. Bore is 89.5 mm (3.52 in) and stroke is 92 mm (3.6 in). It was also one of GM's first engines to use coil-on-plug ignition. Compression ratio is 9.3:1.

The cost of building this engine was high, and it was not used in many vehicles. It was said at the time that a family of premium V6s would follow, with displacements ranging from 3.3 L to 3.7 L, but only the LX5 was ever produced before GM axed the Shortstar in favor of their current flagship V6, the High Feature, in 2004.

The LX5 was entirely different from any other V6 in the GM inventory - the only other DOHC V6 engines ever offered by GM include the troublesome-to-maintain Chevrolet Twin Dual Cam produced from 1991-1997 (which was made by heavily modifying the traditional Chevy 60-degree OHV block for the dual overhead cams rather than building a DOHC engine from the ground up), and the Cadillac/Holden HFV6 available from 2004 to the present day. These three designs are completely unrelated and oddly enough leave two gaps in 1998 and 2003 where no DOHC V6 was available from GM. (Except for the 54 degree Opel V6 used most notably in the first generation Cadillac CTS at launch) This contrasts starkly with competitors practices of evolving engineering over multiple, continuously improving designs.

As with the Aurora V8, production stopped with the demise of Oldsmobile.

Year Model Power Torque
1999–2002 Oldsmobile Intrigue 215 hp (160 kW) @ 5600 rpm 234 lb·ft (317 N·m) @ 4400 rpm
2001–2002 Oldsmobile Aurora 215 hp (160 kW) @ 5600 rpm 234 lb·ft (317 N·m) @ 4400 rpm

The 3.5L LX5 was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 1999 and 2000.

See also

Notes

References

  • Frank Markus. "1993 Technical Highlights". Car and Driver (October 1992): 59–60. 
  • "Technical Highlights". Car and Driver (October 1993): 115. 
  • Joel D. Pietrangelo. "Northstar is heart of Allante re-do for '93 - V-8 engine, General Motors' Cadillac Motor Car Div.'s new model roadster". Ward's Auto World (February 1992). 

External links

en.academic.ru

Особенности двигателя northstar и спецификации

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Двигатель Кадиллак Нордстар-один из самых знаменитых двигателей Америки. В этой статье бизнес сайт, мы взглянем на историю этого двигателя, а также изучить особенности и характеристики различных вариантов. Знаете Ли Вы? Двигатель northstar был признан одним из 10 лучших двигателей в Северной Америке Уорда автомира, последовательно за 1995 год, 1996 и 1997 годах. Это был 1990 год, и добрая старая Америка вновь под угрозой из-за растущей мощи Германии и Японии. Как было уверенно захватывает мир и уже; их войска были созданы лагеря на американском берегу. Ли США станут жертвами этой, казалось бы, неудержимый дуэт, это было до "Дженерал Моторс" (ГМ) решать!

В война за господство в мире легковых автомобилей, легендарного американского автомобильного гиганта Дженерал Моторс взял на себя задачу защиты американских четыре-Уилер области. Их ответ на технологические войны-крики Восток был двигатель northstar. Преподносится как наиболее сложных и продвинутых архитектуру GM двигатель либо, двигатель northstar имеет долгую пробег почти 17 лет, в течение которых она стала вехой в американской автомобильной разработки. В следующих разделах, мы должны узнать больше об историческом двигатель northstar.

Истории Двигатель northstar Отдел общего двигателя Кадиллак автомобилей всегда ассоциировался с роскошью и класс. С момента покупки ГМ компании в 1909 году, Кадиллак, посредством непрерывного технического прогресса, сумела зарекомендовать себя как один из самых знаменитых и уважаемых американских ведущих брендов автомобилей.

В конце 1980-х годов, немецких конкурентов, таких как BMW и Mercedes-Benz начал соперничают за крупный американский квадроцикл рынка. В то же время, японские конкуренты Toyota и Nissan послал своих люксовых марок Lexus и Infinity, чтобы нагреть конкуренции. Все эти автомобили пришли вооруженные до зубов с таких интересных функций, которые прежде никогда не видел на американской земле.

Среди наиболее заманчивые из них-нового поколения двойного накладные кулачок двигатель V8, который был прямой вызов алюминиевый ХТ верхним расположением клапанов (OHV) V8, который Кадиллак использовал в то время. Как бы ни смотрели на это, двигатель Кадиллака просто не подходил для европейских и японских моделей, а скорее, ГМ начал терять свои драгоценные роскошные долю рынка. Вскоре, это стало сделать или умереть ситуации для них.

Инженеры в GM столкнулись с непростой задачей полного пересмотра роскошный бренд Cadillac. Они подготовили список изменений, которые они решили включить в новые модели. Этот сложный подвесок, тормозов, рулевого управления, а главное, абсолютно новый высокотехнологичный двигатель с учетом всех особенностей, что в конкурсе приняли предложение, и многое другое. Они решили назвать этот двигатель двигатель northstar, и вспомогательная система рулевого управления тормозов подвески и системы Нордстар. Технические характеристики двигателя northstar и особенности Двигатель northstar дебютировал в 1992 году на Cadillac Allanté, которых было два родстера, что GM натравлю спортивных автомобилей из Германии и Японии. Это показало весьма сложной конструкцией и расширенным функционалом, которому GM надеется, будет игра-чейнджер для них.

Двигатель northstar состоит из литого алюминия 90° V8 с блока, с 102 мм отверстие интервал разделены на унитарные верхней и нижней половин. Он способен производить 300 л. с. и атмосферный двигатель объемом 4565 куб.. Нижняя рукоятка корпус поддерживает коленвала без обычных крышек коренных подшипников. При этом, масло галерея находится, который может обычно удерживать 7. 5 - 8 кварцевые нефти.

Это вмешательство двигатель, имеющий бронзовый штырь втулки и свободно-плавая штыри. Гильзы цилиндров отлиты из железа, в то время как поршни изготовлены из литого алюминия. Есть в общей сложности 4 клапана на цилиндр. Литые-алюминиевые головки цилиндров используйте двойной верхний распредвал, Приводимый в действие необслуживаемым кулачкового привода цепи чехол. Они действуют непосредственно на гидрокомпенсаторы на концах клапанов, и кормят через проход смазки просверлил вдоль по ГБЦ.

Впускной клапан находится под углом в 25°, а выхлопная наклонена на 7°. Платиновым наконечником свечи зажигания установлены по центру. Чтобы уменьшить вес, крышки камеры изготовлены из магниевого.

Индукционная система состоит из 8 термопластичной трубы, которые используются для последовательного впрыска топлива. Стрельба из свечи зажигания, вместе с тонким топлива-впрыска, регулируется модулем управления трансмиссией (PCM). РСМ также контролирует 4T80-Е передачи.

Одним из наиболее рекламируемых особенностей двигателя northstar была, что ГМ назвал режим ее хромота-дом' . Этот режим был практически безотказен, в котором двигатель может быть запущен даже при отсутствии охлаждающей жидкости в течение ограниченного количества времени. Он работал путем переключения цилиндров подачи топлива к ним поочередно, что позволило не активен банк воздушным охлаждением. Эта техника, в сочетании с двигателем все-алюминиевая конструкция и большая емкость масла, позволяет двигателю поддерживать безопасный ход температур на расстоянии около 100 миль, без каких-либо существенных повреждений.

Довольно необычная особенность на некоторых Нордстар оборудованных автомобилях с жидкостным охлаждением, генератор переменного тока GM заявил, что продлит его жизнь. Он был использован в Севиль, Девиль, Эльдорадо и модели Cadillac, но было прекращено в 2001 году в пользу воздушного охлаждения установки, из-за жалоб на протечки.

В более поздние годы, были еще разработки оригинальной конструкции Нордстар. Они включали прямой Катушка зажигания системы переменных фаз газораспределения (VVT), которая может варьироваться потребление до 40° и выпускных на 50°. ВВТ предназначен для продольной версия ЖН2 Северной звезды, и из-за проблем с упаковкой, не использовался на поперечный передний привод двигатели. Серии northstar объемом двигателей Двигателя northstar была первоначально разработана для Cadillac. Однако, в своего 17-летнего пребывания в должности, его нашли дома в другие автомобили, а также. Много изменений были внесены в оригинальный дизайн для того, чтобы сделать его совместимым с различными моделями.

Автомобиль Cadillac Allanté, выпущенный в середине 1992 года, стал первым автомобилем к дому двигатель northstar. Она также внедрена система Нордстар, включающая контроль тяги, адаптивная подвеска и анти-блокировочная система тормозов (ABS). Двигатель northstar в Allanté и многие его последующие версии требуется Премиум класс бензина. В 1993 году, он был использован в Кадиллак seville и Эльдорадо. Этот оригинальный двигатель northstar, известный как L37, было 4. 6 л 32-клапанный с двумя верхними распределительными валами все-алюминиевый двигатель V8 мощность 295 л. с..

В 1994 году, другой версии, LD8, был выпущен. У него был другой профиль кулачка и рейтинг низкий пик мощности 270 л. с.. Тем не менее, ему удалось улучшить приемистость и увеличился крутящий момент в Нижнем диапазоне оборотов.

В L37 4. 6 л V8 был обновлен снова в 1995 году, и теперь она была немного улучшена мощностью 300 л. с.. Аналогично, 4. 6 ЛТ LD8 тоже получила 5 л. пуш, доведя ее общую мощность до 275 л. с.. Эти две версии продолжали использоваться в различных моделях Cadillac за почти десять лет.

В течение длительного времени, двигатель northstar украшала только Кадиллак, пока он, наконец, принят на Понтиак Бонневиль в 2004 году, а позже в Бьюик Люцерна в 2006 году. Кроме того, 4. 0 ЛТ L47 двигатель V8 версия использовалась в Олдсмобиле Арора, а 3. 5 ЛТ УЧАСТИЕМLX5 V6 был использован в Олдсмобиль интриг. К концу 2003 года, двигатель получил кованый стальной коленвал. Была версия V12 запланировано на Escalade, но из-за новых стандартов кафе, идею пришлось выбросить.

В Нордстар изначально создавалась для переднеприводных автомобилей. Однако в 2004 году он был модифицирован для заднеприводной и полноприводной СТС, автомобиль SRX и XLR модели Cadillac. Задний привод двигатель, известный как заднеприводный(ЖН2) Нордстар, имел мощность 320 л. с. и крутящим моментом 315 нм.

В 2005 году "Кадиллак" получил столь необходимое обновление, с 4. 4 л с наддувом (LC3) двигатель northstar V8, и совершенно новый Hydra-matic шестиступенчатой автоматической трансмиссией. Выходная мощность нового двигателя 469 л. с. при 6000 об / мин, с крутящим моментом 439lbs-м при 3900 об / мин. Это были самые высокие показатели, что Кадиллак когда-либо созданных. Этот двигатель был показан в 2006-2009 Кадиллак СТС-В, и слегка отмасштабированы 443 л. с. версия использовалась в 2006-2009 Кадилак XLR-вход в

Хотя L37 и двигателей LD8 на Кадиллак DTS и CTS, выпущенные в 2010 году, в июле того же года, GM решил прекратить производство двигатель northstar вообще. Новых моделей Cadillac, как CTS-V, в особенность небольшой блок OHV двигатель, который является гораздо более простой дизайн по сравнению с Нордстар. Общие Проблемы Вне всяких сомнений, двигатели Нордстар были технологическим шедевром, когда они были впервые выпущены. Они создали ажиотаж на рынке, и продажи Кадиллак впоследствии вырос. Однако, ни одна технология не является идеальной, и на протяжении многих лет, клиенты GM понял, что есть несколько щелей в броне northstar в.

В оригинале в northstar V-8 от 1994-1999 годов, утечка нефти была общая проблема. Эта проблема возникла из-за сидячего масла-уплотнение в алюминиевый блок. Однако поклонники Кадиллак отклонила эту проблему, утверждая, что это не редкость для высокой производительности системы используйте большее количество масла. Позже ГМ был в состоянии решить эту проблему путем создания заднего масляного уплотнения, которое прессуется в блок. Однако, это может только быть удалены или заменены с помощью специального инструмента обслуживания.

Еще одна распространенная проблема в том, что главы раздутия прокладка. Сжигание нефти вызвало накопление мусора в двигатель, из-за чего двигатель будет перегреваться и прокладку взорвется. ГМ разработал набор для уборки, чтобы решить эту проблему. Когда она была впервые введена, двигатель northstar был квантовым скачком вперед для GM. Это весьма продвинутый движок включен ГМ взять на европейских и японских соперников, и хотя это был тернистый путь от начала и до конца, оно должно всегда помнить, как одной из эталонных образцов американской автомобильной промышленности.

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